A complete guide to mastering Idgham

Adhering to Allah’s orders is a way to find closeness to Him, and one powerful means of approach is through reading the Quran. Tajweed, the set of rules governing Quran recitation, guides to proper pronunciation and articulation. Among these rules, learning what is Idgham in Tajweed. Idgham refers to the merging of specific letters when they occur in certain combinations, enriching the beauty and fluency of recitation. Understanding and applying Idgham is just one part of Tajweed, ensuring the Quran is recited with reverence and accuracy. By delving into Tajweed principles like Idgham, individuals deepen their connection to the Quran and embark on a journey of spiritual enrichment and closeness to Allah.

What is Idgham in Tajweed rules?

Idgham is a concept in Tajweed rules related to recitation, it is defined as the set of rules governing the proper pronunciation of the Quran in recitation. What is Idgham in Tajweed refers to the merging or assimilation of certain letters with others when they occur together in specific combinations within a word or between adjacent words in the Quran text. This merging results in the sound of one letter being absorbed or assimilated into the sound of another, leading to a smooth transition in recitation. Idgham plays a crucial role in maintaining the flow and beauty of Quranic recitation while adhering to the rules of Tajweed.

You can understand the linguistic essence of Idghaam in Arabic by examining its root verb, أدغم (adghama), which signifies the action of inserting a rein into a horse’s mouth. This comparison sheds light on the concept of Idghaam in Tajweed, where a non-voweled letter is concealed or assimilated within a voweled letter, similar to the way a rein is concealed inside a horse’s mouth.

Benefits of Idgham in Tajweed

Idgham is a crucial aspect of Tajweed, the rules for the right pronunciation and recitation of the Holy Quran. It refers to the merging of a non-vowel letter with a vowel letter, resulting in one emphasized letter of the second type. This is particularly important when Noon Sakinah or Tanween is followed by one of the Idgham letters that will be explained soon in detail.

Mastering Idgham is essential for those seeking to recite the Quran with proper pronunciation and adherence to the rules of recitation. It helps maintain the flow and rhythm of the recitation, avoiding any disruption or pause between the letters. By understanding and applying the rules of Idgham, individuals can enhance their Quranic recitation and deepen their connection with the holy text.

Letters of Idgham

As mentioned earlier, understanding Noon Sakinah and Tanween is essential for mastering Tajweed, so answering the question of What is Idgham in Tajweed and Idgham rules requires explaining Noon Sakinah and Tanween; Noon Sakinah refers to the letter Noon without any vowel signs, while Tanween is the nasal sound indicated by the letters ن, م, or ي at the end of a word. When Noon Sakinah or Tanween is followed by one of the Idgham letters, the Noon Sakinah or Tanween sound is dropped, and the letter before the Noon Sakinah or the letter with Tanween merges with the Idgham letter.

It is also crucial to understand Idgham letters, so let’s have a deeper look:

As explained, Idgham is the combination of two letters to produce a single sound. This rule is applied when Noon Sakinah (the letter noon without any vowel signs) or Tanween (the nasal sound indicated by diacritical marks on top of the letter noon) are followed by certain Arabic letters.

In Tajweed, six specific letters are recognized for the rule of Idghaam. Understanding these letters helps in explaining what is Idgham in Tajweed. These letters include (yaa), ر Raa), م (meem), ل (lam), و (waaw), and  (noon). As a trial to make it easier to remember, it was recommended to combine them in the word “يرْمَلُون” (yarmaloon) in Arabic. This can offer a convenient method for those who find it difficult to remember these Idgham letters.

These letters have an important role in blending the sounds when they come after Noon Sakinah or Tanween. The letters of Idghaam are:

Raa: When following Noon Sakinah or Tanween, the letter Raa (ر) causes the Noon sound to merge into it.

Letter meem: Similarly, the letter Meem (م) triggers the merging of Noon Sakinah or Tanween into Meem.

letter Lam (ل):  follows the same pattern as Raa, causing the Noon sound to merge into it when following Noon Sakinah or Tanween.

The letter Waw (و): it initiates the merging of Noon Sakinah or Tanween into Waw.

Noon: When Noon (ن) follows another Noon Sakinah or Tanween, the two Noons merge.

Lastly, the letter Ya (ي) merges with the preceding Noon Sakinah or Tanween.

Idgham rules in Tajweed

The rules that explain what is Idgham in Tajweed are a significant branch that requires time and effort to understand and apply correctly. Providing a brief overview of this lesson, we’ll explain the fundamental concepts of Idgham and its importance in improving the recitation of the Quran. This aims to offer an initial understanding and a comprehensive introduction to this important topic.

  • Sukoon must be present on one of the letters involved in Idgham.

The letter with Sukoon should be one of the recognized Idgham letters: ي (ya’), و (waw), ر (ra’), ل (la’), م (meem), or ن (noon).

  • Idgham occurs when Noon Sakinah or Tanween is followed by any Idgham letter.

When Noon Sakinah or Tanween is followed by any Idgham letter (such as ر, م, ل, و, ن, or ي), the Noon Sakinah or Tanween is merged into the following letter.

  • Emphasis on the succeeding letter during Idgham.

The succeeding letter is pronounced with added emphasis, indicated by Shaddah, due to the merging.

  • Makharij Rulings: 

The letter with Sukoon should be followed by a letter with the same Makharij (point of articulation). For instance, if ن (noon) with Sukoon or Tanween is followed by a و (waw), both sounds will merge.

Noor Institute offers an online Tajweed course that focuses on the fundamentals of Tajweed, including an in-depth exploration of what is Idgham in Tajweed.

Examples of Igham in the Quran to practice

وَجَعَلْنَا سِرَاجًا وَهَّاجًا (An-Naba:13) – In this case, the letter (و – waw) comes after the Tanween and its sound is dropped, and the letter Jeem (جً) merges with (و). The letter Alif (ا) is ignored in this situation.

جَزَاءً مِّن رَّبِّكَ عَطَاءً حِسَابًا (An-Naba:36) – Here, the letter Hamza (ءً) has a Tanween and the letter following it is (مِ – Meem). So, Idgham with Ghunnah occurs.

وَمِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَا زَوْجَيْنِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ (Al-Dhariyat:49) – Here, the letter (ن – Noon) has a Shaddah, and the letter following it is (ن – Noon). So, Idgham without Ghunnah occurs.

These are just a few examples of Idgham in the Quran. However, the Quran is full of verses that could be used as examples to explain what is Idgham in Tajweed.

How to learn Idgham

There are some steps one can follow to learn Idgahm, these steps include learning the letters involved in Idgham, studying the rules and various types of Idgham, such as with Ghunna, without a Ghunnah, Mutganis, and other rules, knowing that each type has its own set of rules that you need to learn and practice in addition to practicing with the many examples in the Quran where Idgham is applied until you feel comfortable with the pronunciation and merging of the letters. Moreover, you should learn from experienced tutors to ensure correct pronunciation and understanding of Idgham as they can guide you through the rules and provide you with feedback on your pronunciation. Finally, you can enroll in Tajweed courses that can provide you with a structured learning experience to embrace the topic of what is Idgham in Tajweed

By following these steps, you can learn Idgham and improve your Quranic recitation skills, also remember that practice is key to mastering Idgham and other Tajweed rules.

Why choose Noor Institute 

Noor Institute offers a comprehensive online Tajweed course that covers all essential aspects of Tajweed, including Idgham. The institute’s expert instructors provide personalized instruction and guidance to help students master the rules of Tajweed. The curriculum is structured to ensure a thorough understanding and application of Tajweed rules.

The institute places a strong emphasis on Quran recitation and understanding, incorporating examples from the Quran to apply Tajweed rules practically and deepen the connection to the Quran. Flexible options are available to cater to diverse schedules, with proven results showcasing significant improvement in recitation skills. 

Book your free trial to deepen your understanding of what is Idgham in Tajweed


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